• Darshini Krishna

The Alcohol Guide

Updated: Jul 2


Alcohol- the topic that so many of us have vested interests in!


Alcohol consumption is a part of our social and cultural fabric, with the average adult consuming an estimated 4.3 liters of pure ethanol per year [1].


And yet when people begin prioritizing their health, fitness, and performance, it’s usually one of the first things they attempt to get rid of or at least limit.


But do we really need to pick between gains and alcohol?


Can't we have both?


gif

In this article, we will explore the effect of alcohol on our goals, how to fit alcohol into our macros, and best practices.



What is Alcohol?


Let’s start here- what is alcohol.


Alcohol is principally ethyl alcohol or ethanol.


Ethanol is found in alcoholic beverages, like wine, beer, liquor.


It is the most widespread drug that is used recreationally worldwide.



Alcohol and Weight Loss


“Do I really need to give up drinking if I want to lose weight?”

The answer is a resounding no.

When it comes to weight loss, calories are number one on the pyramid [2].


What this means is if all you care about is losing weight, dropping the number on the scale, then as long as you are operating in a calorie deficit, you most definitely still can lose weight with alcohol in your diet.


Think about all the athletes that have copious amounts of alcohol after a big game, if athletes can drink and still lose or maintain weight, so can our general population clients.


gif

The only glaring difference between them is their levels of energy expenditure, but if we control for energy balance, it's definitely possible.


Great news, I know.

Image: Muscle & Strength Nutrition Pyramid by Helms, Eric Russell, Morgan, Andy, Valdez, Andrea Marie


Now that we got that settled, let’s dig a little deeper.


While you can lose weight including alcohol in your diet, it might not be optimal in terms of body composition, meaning more of your weight loss could come from lean body mass compared to fat mass [3].


This is where Macros come in and where your focus will need to shift one step further beyond just hitting your calorie goal, to include specific Protein, Carb, and Fat numbers as well.


While I will not tell you you need to drop alcohol completely to lose fat, after a certain point, playing “Macro Tetris” when you’re dieting and drinking alcohol becomes more trying, from multiple fronts.

gif

Firstly, it might just be plain hard to maintain a calorie deficit due to the fact that Alcohol is as almost as energy-dense as Fat at 7kcal/gram.


Secondly, the liquid calories in alcohol just aren’t that satiating.


Basically, it's not filling, you will end up reaching for food to fill you up.

gif

Thirdly, alcohol lowers your inhibition, meaning you’re likely to make poorer food and life choices, like going to McDonald’s at 4 am and having a meal worth well over 1000 calories.


This adds up quickly and before you know it the deficit you worked so hard for all week is gone.

gif

In general, small or moderate amounts of alcohol are not going to negatively impact your body composition goals.


And yes, alcohol may not have protein, carb or, fat macros but it sure does have calories!


It's where the term "empty calories" came from.


Refer to Appendix- Tracking Alcohol, on how to properly account for alcohol in your Macros.



Alcohol, Training, and Recovery


Now let's look at the impact of alcohol on training and recovery.


To sum it up, “the dose makes the poison”.

gif

The effects of alcohol consumption on recovery from resistance exercise depend on the dose, with there being minimal impact [5] on lower doses (≤ 0.5g/kg), and with studies suggesting that higher doses may impede recovery (≥ 1g/kg, that’s about ~8 standard drinks for an 80kg person).


Alcohol consumption also makes more skillful or physically demanding tasks (think Olympic weightlifting) more challenging due to its potential effects on reaction time.


In general, a more complete look at other research studies beyond just those that study the impact on resistance training show that alcohol consumption leads to increased levels of cortisol, along with reductions in testosterone and rates of muscle protein synthesis [6].


While this may not interfere with recovery from a single workout, if your goal is optimizing your health, body composition, and long-term training adaptation, consistent alcohol consumption becomes troublesome and counterproductive.


To add on from anecdotal experience, if you’re really hungover going into a workout, you’re likely going to have a rather crappy, unenjoyable time in the gym.


Another effect of alcohol that is seldom talked about is its impact on your sleep quality [7].


gif

Alcohol reduces sleep latency (meaning you fall asleep quicker, hello drowsy drunk) and can cause an increase in slow-wave sleep (which usually happens in the first half of the night), but negatively disrupts rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.


So while alcohol may help you fall asleep, it also leads to reduced total sleep time and overall low-quality less restful sleep.



In summary- Alcohol, Adherence, Diet sustainability


As we know, we need to take our lifestyle into account when devising diet protocols, in this case, alcohol consumption.


Adherence is and will always remain of number one importance.


If you are going to completely overhaul your diet for a predetermined time frame for the sake of a diet, I can assure you your results are not going to last, and it's only matter of time before you undo all your hard work.